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The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) provides scientific advice on the marine ecosystem to governments and international regulatory bodies that manage the North Atlantic Ocean and adjacent seas.


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The fishing mortalities on short lived species in North Sea are generally below the fishing mortalities which gives the maximun sustainale yield and the spawning stock sizes have been increasing in the later years (Figure 6.1.7). 


Figure 6.1.7  Time-series of average relative fishing mortality (F to FMSY ratio) and biomass (SSB to BMSY trigger ratio) by fish guild. Mean F and mean SSB is by total number of stocks with reference points (From ICES Ecosystem Overviews, ICES Advice Book 6, page 6).